Welcome to Raph Koster's personal website: MMOs, gaming, writing, art, music, books.
Welcome to Raph Koster's personal website: MMOs, gaming, writing, art, music, books.

The whole Web
Raph's Website

These are full-blown essays, papers, and articles.

Slideshows and presentation materials from conferences.

Interviews and Panels
Reprints of non-game-specific interviews, and transcripts of panels and roundtables.

Excerpts from blog, newsgroup, and forum posts.

The "Laws of Online World Design" in various forms.

A timeline of developments in online worlds.

A Theory of Fun for Game Design
My book on why games matter and what fun is.

Insubstantial Pageants
A book I started and never finished outlining the basics of online world design.

Links to resources on online world design.

The most common justification for nerfs, balance changes, new features, and changes to old rulesets is that "the players aren't playing as intended."

Playing as intended

I think "playing as intended" is overvalued--except insofar as it means that players play longer or get more enjoyment out of the game or do not ruin the enjoyment of others.

The first one has obvious basis for commercial ventures, and the latter is likewise obvious. The middle one--a good example is Motor City Online. Because of how the game is designed, there's more advantage to running the oval tracks over and over again for points and cash than there is from actually playing the full range of offerings the game has. This makes the game less fun for everyone, IMHO. I don't think there's anything wrong with trying to rectify that, and even applaud the effort, even if it is definable as "fixing it so they play as intended."

I guess my key point is this:

Players will do things that are not fun, because we the designers reward them for doing it. And then they bitch mightily. But if we reward them enough, they keep doing it. Even when we tell them to stop and go *have fun* they won't, by and large.

So if people aren't playing as intended, it's because your game mechanics are broken. You'll just have to assess whether the way they are playing is more or less fun than what you had hoped. Often, it's MORE, in which case you should embrace it. I think that The Sims is practically a poster child for this.

The initial design for the Sims arose out of several different impulses in Will Wright's mind. He was interested in architecture, which led him to the dollhouse. Then he got interested in the AI behind the Sims themselves. But go figure: what the players made of the Sims was a storytelling tool, which he didn't really envision at all. Very intelligently, rather than ignore or stomp out this behavior, he embraced it.

Child's Play

A Theory of Fun
for Game Design

Cover of A Theory of Fun



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After the Flood

Cover for After the Flood CD

Available on CD

More stuff to buy

Gratuitous Penguin 2006 Wall Calendar

Gratuitous Penguin 2006 Wall Calendar

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