Game talkAGC: MMO economies

 Posted by (Visited 13194 times)  Game talk
Sep 072006
 

Rough notes, sorry for typos!

Sam Lewis, MMOG economies. Lead designer for Cartoon Network MMO. ex-Kesmai, SOE, MBA and BA in econ as well.

What is economics? Study of forces of supply and demand and how they allocate scarce resources in a society.

MMOs are social games, that’s why you use economics. It helps analyze current phenomena and argue with marketing. And it helps you make design decisions, worldbuilding decisions. it isn’t the only lens to look at things, but it’s a useful one.

[shows a graph of the prices of components to build a spaceship in Eve]. Nice and flat, then suddenly there’s a demand spike and prices go through the roof. What do you think happened? Mor e players got qualified to fly that ship, so the demand curve went thru the roof.

Natural market places: pic of Seal Online. Lots of chat bubbles of people saying “sell sell sell.” How many of you played EQ? You all went to sell things in the tunnel. You think anyone designed it that way? No, it was a natural phenomenon. Econ can explain why. Eve Online, there’s a natural place. (Many games get listed with examples of this). If you know why, you can build to encourage it and allow it to happen.

Final reason to use econ: “You can’t screw it up any worse than it already is.”

Money Supply

The classic problem is that the money supply gets out of hand. Asheron’s Call: dupes and other problems caused people to move to alternate currencies (though it is back to currency-based now). You do need to have sufficient cash for lubrication, but you want to avoid a monetary collapse. You do not want your fiat currency to become worthless.

You also have to avoid the new players being “poor” when they first log in.

Monetary collapse could actually be considered fun. OK, but you should be ready to set up a commodity currency. In AC it was keys and shards. It needs to be

- divisible (something you can make change)
- uniform (no differences)
- storable
- durable
- compact (high value for its weight)

in EQ we started seeing peridots being used. (more examples got called out, dark angel feathers in M59 etc. Even a Kingdom of Loathing example).

Quantity Theory

P=MV/Q the quantity theory of money. When marketing comes in and says “let’s give the payers more money” use this to say why it won’t work.

P is the price level
M is cash in circulation <-- note, circulation, not in game. Thr trillions zapped from UO had no effect because it was not circulated.
Q is the quantity of good.
V is the velocity of money. It is the rate of exchanging things., The propensity to save. You have little control over this. In UO the velocity was small. The minute the currency was zapped, the velocity went up (and prices DROPPED).

Inflation is delta(P) = delta(MV/Q), the rate of change. Inflation itself is not so bad.

Healthy inflation: holding cash maintains your wealth
Hyperinflation: holding cash loses wealth.
Depression: Holding case increases wealth. NO liquidity in system, and the economy crashes.

In MMOs, we control price via the money supply. We solve the "poor player" problem with market prices.

How does money get into an economy? Faucets and drains. In other words, player-to-game exchanges. Player hours help set the size of the faucet, but it's loot, it's newbie gold.
Faucet: player selling to the game
Drain: player buying from the game.
The maximum amount of money per time period is based on max amount of activities in a given timeframe as they play.
The problem is that you do not control the cash creation, players do. If they are short of cash, they mint more by killing things. But then the prices go up, so they kill more things. If they need more cash, they open the faucets.

But the drains are fixed typically. The end result is hyperinflated, it's just a question of when.

Solutions:
- tie the drain to the price level (NPC prices rising and falling based on the cash supply). Exploitable, but Ted Castronova thinks he can do it. You SHOULD be able to do it, but...
- auctions work well, because price levels float.
- transaction tax is starting to be used more often in MMOs; a fee charged for something on the auction house as a fee. Used in EQ2, Cloud...

Two player economy example of a transaction tax example. Adventurer needs bullets to kill mobs for cash.
Crafter makes bullets.
Crafter sets price based on demand
Crafter pays fixed charge and percentage sales on the commission.

When graphed, this results in the currency, price of bullets, and so on stabilizing over time.

"Poor" player issue.

Say the economy has been going for 2-3 years. All your crafters have cool goods they are selling, and then new players show up. In the original design of SWG, the new player needed to get involved into the economy quickly. Marketing, customer service come in and say "new players don't have enough cash." But this is the wrong solution, it's inflationary.

As the value of cash declines, the faucet stream declines
So you can't buy good stuff.
Makes new players dissatisfied

Non-inflationary solutions:
- Have NPCs provide basics. Work s to an extent but is not as engaging and you get resentment too ("I got a rusty sword and a rock??!? it's crap!")
- make elder players dependent on services or starting commodities that newbies provide. In EQ, high end reagents were farmed out of the newbie yards. Commodity is good, service is pretty good but it needs to be an ongoing service.

UO had the scroll that matched players together. But there was the problem of scams. AC2/AC new players were valuable because of allegiance...

"Is gold farming severe enough to disrupt your economy?" We know duping is, If the rate of inflation isn't so high that you get issues, then there's no issue from an econ standpoint. There's questions of access to spawns, etc... "Couldn't gold farming have positive effects or other effects?" Yes, but we have also seen racism, etc,. but now we're out of the scope of the talk.

In M59, there are mechanisms to adjust the gold drops, change the faucet instead.

Market Structures: how people buy and sell

What market structure should be used?
Real world economic objective is "Pareto optimality." Resources optimally allocated. This is the gold standard. This is achieved by structuring a perfect market.

We don't want that. Perfect markets are boring. You need imperfection if you want fun. What you want is something called oligopoly.

Structures approach perfection.

——————————————————->
^                ^                        ^                 ^
|                 |                         |                  |
barter      monopoly          oligopoly   perfect markets

Perfect market has many buyers and sellers, and homogeneity of product. No time energy or money to buy or sell. Everybody knows the price, there are no opportunities for triangle trade, low or no transaction costs. Secure transactions. Infinitely divisible good (solved by cash).

Oligopoly -- almost all market structures int he US. Few sellers, many buyers., Substitute goods -- there have variations in quality. There are barriers to enter and exit the market. It costs money to get to one store versus another. Information isn't perfect. I don't have the same info about prices that you do. There are some forms of transaction cost. You still want divisible goods and secure transactions.

How to get fewer sellers?

- fragment sellers by location. Having one auction house like EQ, no. EQ2 two. WoW has three. SWG originally one planetary commodity market but many player vendors.
- another solution is to fragment sellers by time. In EQ, you have to be logged in. So you get a second account. In WoW it's based on limited time -- the offer can only stay up for a limited amount of time.

Many Buyers: tougher.
- Having an NPC vendor of last resort increases the money supply, and it provides a ceiling or a floor to the market. I like players to decide how valuable things are.
- consolidate buyers by location. In SWG I could see everything in the galaxy on the market, but I had to go pick it up. iN EQ2, I would purchase at a distance for a premium.
- consolidate buyers by time. Posting offers to buy, as in Eve. This makes buyers be "on all the time"

Substitute goods: differentiate goods based on
- effectiveness tradeoffs.
- Aesthetics/fashion
- scarcity (done something remarkable, etc)

Barriers to entry:
- high fixed costs. In SWG you make an investment in a hop, a house, your tools, a location. IN EQ/EQ2 it's time investment.
- specialization. In WoW you can get one resource and one manufacturing skill. Need 3 or 4 to make an item. In SWG (old), max 2 crafting profs, but need 3 or 4 for making something.

Imperfect info
In conflict with the few sellers many buyers thing,
- But you want arbitrage opportunities. WoW market tracking software...
- heads up future economic events. In SWG the resource base changed periodically. In There players work the payroll cycle. They know that people do not have cash on Thursday, so they sell low on Thursdays and pump prices on Friday when checks come in
**
Transaction cost is player time.
- make it expensive to change vendors.. SWG, have to pick it up, and search everywhere. WOW, time to get to the location. This makes location based competition a valid choice.

Security and division
- allowing players to cheat on a deal will just cause cs headaches. Admittedly, Eve is doing a great job. Eve is working on a secure contract system though.
- making goods indivisible means you are going to a barter system. But someone will make an alternate currency instead.

If you play with these, you risk destroying the business game.

Industrial organization

This is how relationships between crafters works... it's a study of the structures, the manufacturing chain, and competitive practices.

Typical MMO:
- adventurers gather raw material
- Others supply sub-components
- crafter creates final product
- sold to adventurer

Design issues:
- manufacturing chain
- overproduction
- elder dominance

Chain solutions:
- no independent crafters who can do it all alone. Allowing a crafter to make some subcomponents and final products is necessary, because else it is too narrow.
- competition o the four P's (marketing): price, products (substitute goods), place (location of sale), promotion, and MMO unique Predation -- allow someone to go in and screw up the other guy. Business games are PvP games after all.

Overproduction. Caused by "oligopsony structure" which is many many sellers and few buyers.

Happens because we tie level advancement of crafters to making goods. No one wants to buy CDEF pistols in SWG because the market was flooded and you needed to make a zillion to advance.
- Find a different levelling mechanic.
- Destroy overproducing factories.
- Finally, make items consumable.

Elder dominance
Caused by a natural monopoly structure. A guy comes in with the investment, and he can always undercut everyone else.
Result of overly high fixed costs to get in.
A tremendous first in advantage.
Constantly declining marginal costs. As I get better it's cheaper for me to produce. This includes things like success rate in crafting. If masters fail less, they have declining marginal costs.

Solutions:
- cap quality.Elders make the same quality goods as a newbie. -
- Cap cost. Elders cost the same, including wastage.-
- Use comparative advantage: the elders can make more money selling high end stuff to a different market, so they move on naturally,

References:
Check out Terra Nova http://www.terranova.blogs.com
Sam Lewis' site: http://www.flyingscythemonkey.com -- has all the GDC stuff and papers and this material.
Eve developer blog, Dan Speed, https://myeve.eve-online.com, analyzing Eve economy
Synthetic Worlds, book by Edward Castronova.

  32 Responses to “AGC: MMO economies”

  1. Original post: AGC: MMO economies by at Google Blog Search: get house player swg Blog tag: Get house player swg Technorati tag: Get house player swg Pages: Start Tag: get+house+player+swg

  2. No, it was a natural phenomenon. Econ can explain why. Eve Online, there’s a natural place. (Many games get listed with examples of this). If you know why, you can build to encourage it and allow it to happen. Read the rest

  3. Original post: AGC: MMO economies by at Google Blog Search: check into cash

  4. [...] Bloggers AGC: MMO economies 1 hour 17 min old, Raph’s Koster Website AGC Rant Panel: 6 Devs Enter…er…6 Devs Leave. Dammit. 6 hours 9 min old, Amber Night gnome punt 6 hours 56 min old, MMODIG – unbeliever Proof WoW players are ghey 7 hours 9 min old, MMODIG – unbeliever Nights of the Spawn Table 8 hours 23 min old, KillTenRats – Ethic Spam on blogs 8 hours 44 min old, Tobold Oh Yes, Anders, Galactica IS Coming Back 9 hours 22 min old, Amber Night Amazon European shipping costs 10 hours 37 min old, Tobold The pickup group from hell 16 hours 43 min old, Tobold CNN.com – Some games may enhance sociability – Sep 6, 2006 18 hours 27 min old, Raph’s Koster Website Still Exiled: State Of The Class Reflection 20 hours 49 min old, Geldon Way to go Nicodemus 22 hours 36 min old, Mischiefbox This Is My Rant. There Are Many Rants Like It. This One Is Mine. 23 hours 58 min old, BrokenToys – Lum Registration Games 1 day 1 hour old, Matt Mihaly Interesting team-up 1 day 4 hours old, Matt Mihaly AGC: Rob Pardo’s keynote 1 day 7 hours old, Raph’s Koster Website AGC 2006! 1 day 9 hours old, Zen of Design – Ubiq The August 2006 Warcraft Keylogger Incident 1 day 10 hours old, AFK Gamer – Foton The New York Times to Gamers: You Have a Stigma 1 day 10 hours old, AFK Gamer – Foton Europe second class again for PS3 1 day 12 hours old, Tobold Relmstein on healers 1 day 13 hours old, Tobold WoW Journal – 6-September-2006 1 day 14 hours old, Tobold Living In Norrathian Exile 1 day 15 hours old, Geldon New Dell laptop battery 1 day 16 hours old, Tobold No, I’m not in Austin… 1 day 18 hours old, Matt Mihaly more [...]

  5. [...] [Quote  by: Sam Lewis] What is economics? Study of forces of supply and demand and how they allocate scarce resources in a society. MMOs are social games, thats why you use economics. It helps analyze current phenomena and argue with marketing. And it helps you make design decisions, worldbuilding desicions. it isnt the only lens to look at things, but its a useful one. http://www.raphkoster.com/2006/09/07/agc-mmo-economies/ [...]

  6. Personally, I think the whole model of infinite resources is inherently flawed and ultimately is the root cause of most of the economy issues (aside from duping bugs and exploits).

    What I see as two key components to avoiding rampant inflation are as follows:

    Localized resources with mass transportation difficult enough to keep a those resources from becoming overly globalized. Done in such a way that a local resource isn’t overpowered to the point of being regarded as necessary by the player-base (IE, Oak might be the best thing to use to make a house, but bamboo will serve equally well in forming a basic hut)

    Finite resources with the ability to ‘renew’ some of them (plants for example) and to discover new caches of others (digging deeper into a mountain to find more ore). Included in resources would be any currency, whether it be gold coins or colored beads. NPCs shouldnt just be able to pull millions of gold coins out of their seemingly bottomless pockets.

  7. [...] AGC: MMO economies on Raph Koster AGC: MMO economies on Raph Koster Rough notes, sorry for typos! Sam Lewis, MMOG economies. Lead designer for Cartoon Network mmo. ex-Kesmai, SOE, MBA and BA in econ as well. What is economics? Study of forces of supply and demand and how they allocate scarce resources in a society. MMOs are social games, that’s why you use economics. It helps analyze current phenomena and [...] via Raph Koster [...]

  8. [...] Comments [...]

  9. Tholal wrote:

    I think the whole model of infinite resources is inherently flawed …

    Huh? Economics concerns the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants, not the other way around.

  10. Huh? Economics concerns the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants, not the other way around.

    Except that this model, paradoxically perhaps, doesn’t apply to MMO’s. After all, you can create as much resources as you want and allocate them as you will. But as the presenter discusses with “talking to marketing”, creating more resources to hand out isn’t necessarily a good strategy.

  11. [...] Quantity Theory P=MV/Q the quantity theory of money. When marketing comes in and says lets give the payers more money use this to say why it wont work. P is the price level M is cash in circulation <– note, circulation, not in game. The trillions zapped fom UOUltima Online von Electronic Arts. had no effect because it was not circulated. Q is the quantity of good. V is the velocity of money. It is the rate of exchanging things., The propensity to save. You have little control over this. In UO the velocity was small. The minute the currency was zapped, the velocity went up (and pricess DROPPED).Inflation is delta(P) = delta(MV/Q), the rate of change. Inflation itself is not so bad. Healthy inflation: holding cash mantains your wealth Hyperinflation: holding cash loses wealth. Depression: Hllding case increases wealth. NO liquidity in system, and the economy crashes. In MMOs, we control price via the money supply. We solve the poor player problem with market prices. How does money get into an economy? Faucets and drains. In other words, player-to-game exchanges. Player hours help set the size of the faucet, but its loot, its newbie gold. Faucet: player selling to the game Drain: player buying from the game. The maximum amount of money per time period is based on max amount of activities in a given timeframe as they play. The problem is that you do not control the cash creation, players do. If they are short of cash, they mint more by killing things. But then the prices go up, so they kill more things. If they need more cash, they open the faucets. Link: AGC: MMO economiesWeitere News zum Thema: WAR: Ultima Online and Mythic Teaming Up Raph Koster erklrt das Resourcen System von Ultima Online Wish: Wish fr Ultima Online Spieler UXO: Interview mit dem Product Manager zum Ende von Ultima X Odyssey Ultima X Odyssey eingestellt Diskussion im Forum:Sam Lewis ber die konomie in MMOs [...]

  12. StGabe wrote:

    Except that this model, paradoxically perhaps, doesn’t apply to MMO’s. After all, you can create as much resources as you want and allocate them as you will.

    I don’t necessarily agree, which isn’t to say I think that’s wrong. The virtual space allows us to experiment with scenarios that normally wouldn’t be encountered in real space, but we can also control that virtual space in a way that models real space. A virtual economy can mimic a real economy. It’s just a matter of design.

  13. Perhaps resources should be distributed on a per-player basis?

  14. A virtual economy can mimic a real economy.

    Except that no one is going to let you add real death* to the design. Without death we don’t have needs, just wants. This ripples into the supply and demand model because there is no true demand, just some desire. This is why on many MMOs finished goods are valued at lower than materials. Players want a Sword of Orcslaying but the real demand is for crafters who want to make a Sword of Orcslaying. The fun of having a sword they made themselves out ways the extra cost of making it themselves.

    *Real death is not being teleported a short distance from where you were fighting. That said, I think WoW proves what I’ve been saying for some time, that the penalty for dieing doesn’t need to be much higher than a “You have failed” message. Players know that their real stake in the game is time, having to do something over again is cost enough. I can see benefits for higher costs, I just think they are outweighed by how a player feels when he dies when it wasn’t his fault, such as a server crash, or the “tank” going link dead, or forgetting to switch to fire armor. (OK, the last one does sound like his fault but it may not feel like an honest death to the player because it’s not a mistake his character was likely to make. )

  15. [...] Sam Lewis over MMO economien Ook Raph Koster, die toch een van de pioniers is in het MMO genre, is aanwezig op de Austin Game Conference. Op zijn eigen blog heeft hij een artikel geplaatst van Sem Lewis over economien in MMO’s. Het gaat behoorlijk diep en zal waarschijnlijk alleen logisch zijn als je bekend ben met alle termen die hij gebruikt. Klik hier om het te lezen. [...]

  16. Morning ramble on the subject – I wish I could have seen this presentation:

    I don’t know that infinite resources are a bad thing, since ultimitely it is a game and players probably won’t find “gold rushes” very fun unless they happen to secure their stake during one. But at the same time, if you make your resources too easy and painless to get you can end up with problems later on. That is to say, instead of limiting the amount of resources that come into the game, limit the rate of collection of those resources.

    EVE does a good job of this where asteroid fields will be mined out and then take days to respawn.

    Since resources are consumed by crafters to make goods, which are then purchased by consumers and used up or eventually destroyed, this allows anyone wanting to gather resources and craft to get started, but also insures that oversupply doesn’t become a very bad thing.

    On the opposite end you have EQ2′s crafting model, where you can very easily farm tons of resources with little risk involved. Over time this has caused resources to become very cheap commodities, and thus goods made with those resources have fallen in price.

    A bigger economic question for any MMORPG is the loot vs. crafting one – how do you want to supply your players with cool items? A loot-based economy is always going to be prone to speculation, farming, and so on. There will be a huge price difference between rare items and more common items, and not much in the middle. In a crafting-based economy prices will tend to scale more evenly with rarity/difficulty/quality.

    You can combine the two but you still have to pick one over the other. Earth and Beyond used a mechanism where players could loot an item and then a crafter could take the item and attempt to figure out how to make it. Once the crafter learned how to make the item they were able to make the item with better stats than the looted version. So for most items the crafted version was the one you were striving for.

    Specialization is important. Players like to try to do everything for themselves. If you let players master every crafting area then demand drops over time as more do it. If you enforce specialization in some way you keep demand going because players have to rely on each other. Likewise if you make crafting a true profession/class rather than being a side set of skills that people pick up you insure demand.

    Significant barriers to entry are a bad thing that will discourage players – it is a game. This depends a lot on how itemization is done in the game, but if players have to go through hell and high water just to be able to get started crafting it will decrease the number of crafters available, which will cause supply to stay low and prices to stay high.

  17. Great read! Like Econ 101 all over again (albeit 20 years later)!

    Sorry – I know this doesn’t offer much to the discussion, but I just really enjoyed that write-up.

  18. I’m scared that economists still actually think in terms of perfect markets and “Pareto”. Apparently, being inapplicable to the understanding of real-world events hasn’t diminished its appeal. “Oh, this could be a perfect market except that it involves human beings!”

  19. I always found the resource gathering in WOW a little odd. Other games which have gathering involved (eg. EVE and SWG) make it into a profession; mining and artisan respectively.

    In WOW it always felt strange because everyone was a combat player, and the game itself doesn’t really represent a persistant world as the only thing to do is combat. The gathering part of WOW is always a side profession to the main task of whacking kobolds ^^

    Having said all that, I can’t work out which kind of economy works better, because both WOW and EVE are gaining subscribers at a steady rate (I discount SWG as they are draining subs due to other factors unrelated to economy).

    However, it cannot be overlooked that a game economy gives almost all players a reason to keep playing. Even with a lack of dev created content, ecenomics gives the true player created content that we all strive for. One only has to read of the recent EIB scam in EVE, which resulted in players losing 750,000,000,000 in game credits….and making the news across the net; I can’t begin to imagine how many new players that brought to the game!

  20. [...] Economics and other MMO design issues After reading an interesting article by Ralph Koster on MMO Econ, I read some of the articles at http://www.flyingscythemonkey.com/, many of which deal directly with some of the issues that have been discussed around the Unworld project regarding guilds, factions, rewards and asset acquisition. Published Friday, September 08, 2006 12:27 PM by Merritt Graves [...]

  21. I don’t necessarily agree, which isn’t to say I think that’s wrong. The virtual space allows us to experiment with scenarios that normally wouldn’t be encountered in real space, but we can also control that virtual space in a way that models real space.

    I agree with what you’re saying near the end. But you see, the fact that you have to build in constraints shows that you’re not really “maximizing allocation of limited resources” when you create an MMO economy. You want to create a constrained environment with some limits on resources that then allows to people engage in economics. And you want to make sure that the economics is FUN.

    It’s a different task entirely than figuring out how to increase the GNP of your country because you could increase the GNP whenever you want just by tweaking some numbers. Designing MMO economies happens at meta-level to economics and has to introduce constraints instead of overcoming constraints as real-life economics does. It’s real-life economics turned upside down.

    Except that no one is going to let you add real death* to the design. Without death we don’t have needs, just wants.

    Because the game is purely artificial. The only reason not to satisfy all needs and wants is that it wouldn’t be fun and not because someone might starve or die of exposure.

  22. [...] Courtesy of Sam, here are his slides for his presentation. You can read them alongside the liveblog I did. [...]

  23. Very glad you were able to spell “fiat” currency correctly in the liveblog.

    For some reason, Sam, with his “MBA in Economics” insisted on spelling it “fait”.

    He also totally misunderstands the “Invisible Hand” of Adam Smith — but then he has this in common with many, many economists, mostly because they rely on bad distillations of Adam Smith rather than reading the original.

    Adam Smith’s “Invisible Hand” that supposedly directs the free market, if you bother actually reading Adam Smith, is the hand of God, which Smith felt directed and controlled human affairs so we’d all be ok in the long run. God wouldn’t allow market fluctuations that would let us all starve, for example.

    Clearly that won’t work in an MMO, unless your Invisible Hand is the hand of the game designer… just like he then suggests, apparently without irony, with fluctuating NPC prices. I agree that simplistic formulas for doing this would be easily exploitable, however.

    But apart from these basic snafus, there are some excellent points. Personally, I especially appreciated how clearly his talk lays bare the old “gold farmers cause inflation” lunacy.

  24. But you see, the fact that you have to build in constraints shows that you’re not really “maximizing allocation of limited resources” when you create an MMO economy.

    One resource, money, is infinite in the real world because most money is digital. We can print as much money as we want; however, our economic systems impose constraints for economic reasons. We can mimic a real economy in a virtual world because the mechanics are the same. We’re just using a window to another environment populated by real people with the same unlimited wants.

  25. [...] Raph’s Website » AGC: MMO economies [...]

  26. [...] Well, I love the start of this topic, since this is going to be a portion of the game that we absolutely have to do correctly.Instead of posting just yet, I went researching. My preliminary results are these:http://www.raphkoster.com/2006/09/07/agc-mmo-economies/http://www.flyingscythemonkey.com/new_page_1.htmhttp://www.flyingscythemonkey.com/Money_Su…White_Paper.htmhttp://www.devmaster.net/articles/mmorpg-p…ortem/part2.php (read parts 1-5 for a great source of info about MMO dev)http://www.gamedev.net/community/forums/to…topic_id=394622I figure, unless we get an economy pro in here, we all need to do a bit of research. That should keep you busy for a few hours. ——————– JerkyProject Wish Art Team Lead [...]

  27. [...] Der Text ist natrlich von Dir, aber Du benutzt ja nun unbestritten gewisse Quellen in diesem Text, die Du freundlichweise bersetzt hast. Nicht wirklich. Eher persnliche Erfahrung und viele viele Diskussionen ber das Thema. Wenn es dich allerdings nher interessiert, kann ich dir gerne einige Quellen nennen, die sich sehr viel umfassender damit beschftigen. Allerdings bin ich selber nicht immer der gleichen Meinung der Autoren (und teilweise widersprechen sie sich auch gegenseitig): Sam Lewis: AGC: MMO economies http://www.raphkoster.com/2006/09/07/agc-mmo-economies/ Raph Koster hat freundlicherweise den Vortrag von Sam Lewis von der Austin Games Conference zusammengefasst, der eine schne Kurzabhandlung zu dem Thema her gibt. Dr. Richard Bartle: Design of Virtual Worlds ISBN 0131018167 Die Bibel des MMORPG Design. Schon recht alt, aber keineswegs veraltet. Ein Must Read fr jeden, der sich wirklich ernsthaft fr die Hintergrnde von MMORPGs interessiert. Bart Stewart: Advanced Economic Systems in Online Games http://terranova.blogs.com/terra_nov…omicStages.rtf Ziemlich theoretisch. Stewart vergleicht reale und virtuelle konomien und stellt (teilweise umstrittene) Thesen und Vorschlge auf. Edward Castronova: Virtual Worlds: A First-Hand Account of Market and Society on the Cyberian Frontier http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.c…ract_id=294828 Edward Castronova: On Virtual Economies http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.c…ract_id=338500 Edward Castronova: The Price of ‘Man’ and ‘Woman’: A Hedonic Pricing Model of Avatar Attributes in a Synthethic World http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.c…ract_id=415043 Daniel Terdiman: Fun in Following the Money http://www.wired.com/news/games/0,21…w=wn_tophead_2 Recht allgemein aus der Sicht eines Redakteurs, dafr aber leichter zu verdauen Bei GrepLaw gibt es auch noch ein Interview mit Castronova zur MMO konomie. http://grep.law.harvard.edu/articles…8/206239.shtml Von Constanze Steinkuehler gab es meines Wissens nach auch einmal eine wissenschaftliche Arbeit zu dem Thema, die finde ich aber bei Google nicht mehr. Ansonsten sind Terra Nova oder Raph Koster’s Webseite immer ein guter Anlaufpunkt. Meines erachtens waren das Interessanteste zu dem Thema immer die Diskussionen auf der Mud-Dev Mailingliste. Da hier von Raph Koster bis Brad McQuaid praktisch alle namhaften MMO (und MUD) Entwickler ihre Thesen diskutierten. Allerdings gibt es diese Liste meines Wissens nach schon lange nicht mehr , da bin ich aber nicht mehr so auf dem Laufenden, vielleicht sind die Archive noch irgendwo im Web zu finden. Zitat: [...]

  28. [...] MMO dev Good Article by Bartle One of the big cores should be your economy. Check out these: From Raph again Sam Lewis’ ideas on economy Sam Lewis again Thread here on economy Mu’s thoughts on [...]

  29. [...] within both the real world and the virtual that if you disallow one currency for free exchanges, players create a new one. It happened in muds when mudflation hit, it happened on Meridian 59, it happened on UO, and it [...]

  30. [...] December 24, 2007 by mrrx Raph decides to lay it out for all of us about how and why we have RMT issues in games, and what to do about them, or even not to do. Also gives us a link to a presentation he attended in 2006 by a seriously smart economist who layed out a great economic primer on MMO’s – look at this. [...]

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